## 20090106

### Univironmental Theory of Gravity

Dear Dr. Borchardt:

As I try to understand the premise behind the Univironmental Theory of Gravity, some questions have arisen. I comprehend that objects are being pushed, instead of being pulled.
What I am having a bit of trouble understanding is what is taking place when a planet's "gravitation" (such as Jupiter) is used to accelerate a spacecraft; what they call a "gravity assist."
Also, as I can envision material emitted from the sun pushing the planets in the same direction as the sun spins, what accounts for the discrepancy in the orbits of comets, for example?

Again, it is a great privilege to speak with you.

Frederic Frees

You are correct that the Univironmental Theory of Gravity uses the “push theory” of gravitation, continuing the approach that Newton used in formulating his three laws of motion. There are no “pulls” in nature, although it often seems that way (a vacuum cleaner is a good example). Because the “pushers” were too small to be observed and Newton really could not know what physically caused gravitation, he reverted to the common view that gravitation was an “attraction.” The mathematics are the same whether gravity is treated as a push or a pull.

A “gravity assist” occurs when a satellite intercepts a fast-moving planet. Jupiter, for example, is moving in its orbit at 48,000 kilometers per hour. The satellite temporarily becomes part of the Jupiter-satellite system as it is pushed into orbit around Jupiter. This is sort of like a hitch hiker running to catch a ride on a fast-moving train--providing his arms don’t pull off. When he jumps off the train, his body will have the velocity of the train, not his original velocity. [Please don’t try either of these experiments!]

The “pushers” involved in gravitation are not necessarily emitted from the sun. They exist throughout the universe, which must be infinite for the Univironmental Theory of Gravity to work. Think of it like this: Suppose you are traveling down from the mountains holding onto a balloon or thin plastic bottle. As you approach closer and closer to sea level, the balloon will become smaller and the thin bottle will tend to be crushed. The change in air pressure (1000- kph impacts of nitrogen and oxygen molecules) will “push” the walls of both items together. I speculate that gravity works in a similar way. Massive objects normally contain atoms having a very dense nucleus surrounded by “empty space” and a few electrons in orbit. Because of its high density, the nucleus actually must have a surfeit of gravitons (or whatever the pushers are). It is as if the nucleus (microcosm) was a vacuum relative to its environment (macrocosm). A push results. This univironmental interaction would apply universally to all microcosm-macrocosm interactions. Even the pushers would have pushers, ad infinitum.

The elongated, very large orbits of the comets probably reflect their low masses and low densities and the fact that they are partially destroyed whenever they are in that part of their orbit nearest the sun. But, as always, the pushers that keep the solar system (microcosm) together must come from outside the solar system (macrocosm).