From p. 325 in Newton (1718):
Neomechanical Theory of Gravitation
Duncan Shaw says:
I received your book yesterday and have already read much of it. Congratulations to you and Stephen. It is quite a masterpiece.
There are a number of similarities with my latest paper on gravity -- copy attached -- and a number of dissimilarities (Shaw, 2012). We both have incoming and outgoing "aether" and we both use the vacuum cleaner analogy. One of the main dissimilarities is that you use vortices and I do not. Also, I use heat that is generated by the impacts of incoming aether as the driving force of outgoing aether or its constituent parts, whereas you use rotation of cosmic bodies to launch the outgoing aether. While these are distinct differences, I think that we are close on our overall approaches.
I am particularly interested in your distinction between solid-mass and gaseous-mass and how that can account for the pressure difference that causes inflow. You are, I think, in good company. Isaac Newton, in his book Opticks, made a similar point in his Queries on the subject of gravity: see Queries 18 to 22, particularly No. 21.
Thanks for your comments. You touch upon some of the critical issues involving theories about the physical cause of gravitation. These are, of course, nonexistent for mainstream (MS) theories, which do not hypothesize a physical cause, such as the “attraction” attributed to Newton and the “curved empty space” attributed to Einstein. As Steve Puetz and I explain it in "Universal Cycle Theory: Neomechanics of the Hierarchically Infinite Universe," gravitation is the property of all microcosms, from the smallest to the largest. Through relativism (All things have characteristics that make them similar to all other things as well as characteristics that make them dissimilar to all other things), we assume that no two microcosms, in this case aether particles, are identical. Although, the rest of this explanation jumps into the middle of the infinite hierarchy, it applies to subsubaether particles as well as galaxy clusters. In intergalactic space, each aether particle has a unique momentum (i.e., P=mv, where m=mass and v=velocity). The more massive, slower aether particles are pushed together by the less massive, faster aether particles. The closer these massive particles become, the more they shield each other from the impacts of the less massive particles. That is the key to neomechanical gravitation. The mutual shielding thus produces a complex, which, by definition is slower and clumsier than free aether particles. Vortices get involved (see Fred’s video on the Vortex Water Experiment at http://scientificphilosophy.com) because aether complexes, being slow and heavy, tend to be pushed toward the center of any rotating cloud of such complexes. Because of this handy juxtaposition, the complexes become even larger, forming what we know as baryonic or ordinary matter. As their concentration at the center of the vortex increases, they tend to displace free aether particles, pushing the aether particles to the periphery of the vortex. The result is a layering effect, with heavy complexes in the center (solids) and less heavy complexes (gases) on the periphery. This battle between large and small is nearly interminable, with aether particles converging and aether particles diverging as per complementarity (All things are subject to divergence and convergence from other things). As Steve explained so well in his analysis of celestial microcosms, any increase in the rotation of a vortex produces an accretion of matter, while any decrease produces an excretion of matter. As always, celestial microcosms come into being via convergence and out of being via divergence.
The upshot of the above is that the density of free aether is dependent on the absence of complexed aether--ordinary matter. Thus, the concentration of ordinary matter in any one place produces a Gravitational Pressure Gradient with its aethereal macrocosm. This gradient is analogous to the atmospheric pressure gradient that surrounds Earth—but in reverse. A helium balloon will rise in our atmosphere because the impacts of air molecules are greater from the high-pressure regions below than from low-pressure regions above. A massive object will do just the opposite. It will be pushed toward the center of the vortex (Earth) because the aethereal impacts are greater from above than below. Although the layering produced by vortex rotation tends to dissipate when the rotation stops, there always will be some layering, and therefore a Gravitational Pressure Gradient around every object. Again, this is because the presence of matter automatically requires the displacement of aether, and the tendency to produce an “aethereal vacuum.” Of course, the total absence of aether is never achieved because aether permeates ordinary matter as well. It flows through and around every larger microcosm, with the contact that produces gravitation often involving only the densest parts of the microcosm. In the helium example, nitrogen and oxygen molecules, being of greater mass, tend to succumb to aethereal impacts more easily than does helium. Helium, in turn, tends to succumb more to impacts from nitrogen and oxygen than from impacts due to aether.
Notice that the above explanation views gravitation as a universal, but local phenomenon. We know that there are no true pulls in nature, as recognized in Newton’s laws of motion. We gave up on other pushing theories for various reasons. The Le Sage Theory, for instance, hypothesizes an elementary particle that travels great distances between objects to produce the push via mutual shielding (Borchardt, 2007). Such a particle would have to travel from the Sun to Earth to do its pushing job. A change in the position of the Sun would not be felt on Earth until that trip was completed, which would be over 8 minutes at light speed, c. The effects of gravity, however, appear to be felt immediately. For that to be the case, the graviton or the motion of the waves within the gravitational medium would have to travel at a velocity over 2 X 1010 c (Van Flandern, 1998). This is 20 billion times the speed of light! While c is no longer considered nature’s speed limit, like Einstein assumed (The OPERA Collaboration, 2011), speeds that great seem unlikely. Neomechanical gravitation solves that problem. The physical cause of gravity is due to the hypothesized aethereal pressure differences, which are local and ever proportional to mass, just as Newton said it was.
Thanks Duncan for the wonderful reference to Newton. The MS view is that Newton denied knowing the physical cause of gravity (i.e., hypotheses non fingo), considering it to be “attraction.” That was in 1713. This propaganda is clearly debunked with the hypothesis he put forth on page 325 in Query 21 of the second edition of Opticks (Newton, 1718), a part of which I put below. He had the Gravitational Pressure Gradient idea all along! We are certainly reassured to have come up with the same conclusion independently, even if three centuries late. Looks like those of us in progressive physics need to search the original sources just like you did. We must be continually aware, that as in all battles, the results of philosophical and scientific struggles are always written by the victors.
Borchardt, G. (2007). The Scientific Worldview: Beyond Newton and Einstein. Lincoln, NE, iUniverse, p. 189.
Newton, I. (1718). Opticks or, a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light. The second edition, with additions. By Sir Isaac Newton. London, Printed for W. and J. Innys, printers to the Royal Society.
Puetz, S. J. and G. Borchardt (2011). Universal cycle theory: Neomechanics of the hierarchically infinite universe. Denver, Outskirts Press. (www.universalcycletheory.com)
Shaw, D. W. (2012). "The cause of gravity: A concept (in press)." Physics Essays.
The OPERA Collaboration (2011). "Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam." arXiv:1109.4897v1 [hep-ex] http://arxiv.org/abs/1109.4897 .
Van Flandern, T. (1998). "The speed of gravity - What the experiments say." Physics Letters A 250(1-3): 11.