TSW: "Just as there is no motion without matter, so there is no matter without motion."
BW: I agree with the first clause but dispute the second. I think it conceivable to have a universe with static matter and no motion, but it wouldn't be the one we live in. In fact, it couldn't have any features whatever, let alone any conscious beings. So, I concur with the sentiment, but not the phrasing. More on my dispute with the Hegel proposition below.
TSW: "How many people really understand that the conceptual unification that Einstein was trying to achieve is, in the end, impossible? ... His belief in finity led to the conceptual and mathematical closure that gave him the equation."
BW: I'm reluctant to give Einstein credit for a concept of energy that "was to guarantee physical inseparability for all time." It was Newton who described energy as the product of mass in motion (½mv²). All Einstein did was substitute c² for v² and drop the conversion factor. There's a very interesting background story to *why* he did that, but the effect was to make mass a *variable* and velocity finite ... *rather than* relative. It seems to me logically incoherent to call such a theory "Relativity". It is correct to say he added "finity" to the velocity, but in so doing, he added *infinity* to mass.
TSW: "... neither matter nor motion should be considered more important than the other ..."
BW: I understand your point that both are necessary, but either formula makes it clear that the quantity of motion is the square greater influence than the quantity of matter in properly calculating kinetic energy. Otherwise, it would just be E=mv.
TSW: "What gives an object its materiality is, first, its consisting of other objects in motion, and second, its existing among other objects in motion."
BW: Hegel is just speculating. Matter isn't "given" substance, it IS substance ... whether moving or not, relatively or objectively. Its existence is not dependent upon "containing" other forms of matter in motion, nor the existence of any other form of matter being in motion. Hegel is trying to objectify motion, which you rightly condemn. I might be able to understand his reductionist presumption (from the evidence at hand), but the remainder is a meaningless self-referential definition: matter gets its substance from matter and other matter, otherwise "it" wouldn't have matter or be matter. Silly.
BW: I realize that you like Hegel's micro and macro-cosmic infinity, but I don't think they're logically sound. He talks about "pure matter", as though other forms were "impure". He says that all matter has charge: "the essence of matter is attraction and repulsion", but I've never heard of negative gravity. He asserts that matter is both divisible and continuous, and at the same time neither of the two. Oddly, these statements appear in a book titled "Science of Logic", when they are anything but logical.
TSW: "... motion always refers to an object that is moving relative to other objects ..."
BW: Almost always. Relativity is correct for all translational motion, but not for spin. Rotational motion is relative to the center of mass, not another object. Once spin is imparted, it is an inertial state of motion.
BW: For example, you're in your space ship, in an inert state, and an irregular object passes you. Relative to your position, you detect motion and can quantify it. You accelerate and match the object's motion. Now, relative to you, it has no motion. Both you and the object are in the same inertial frame. However, if the object is spinning, you cannot move your ship to an inert position that creates the appearance of a non-spinning object. That requires constant acceleration to maintain an orbit. There is no internal frame of reference for the observer, even though the spin itself is an inertial state.
Next: Inseparability Part 2 of 5