Slow Motion and the Eventual Disposition of Black Holes

PSI Blog 20190703 Slow Motion and the Eventual Disposition of Black Holes

A great question with many profound implications from Abhishek Chakravartty:

 “You wrote that solids, unlike the gases in the atmosphere, have fewer “degrees of freedom.” But this would mean that there can be matter without motion because if the "degree of freedom" of any form of matter becomes 0, it would not be in motion and it would be a form of matter without motion. Can you please look deeply into this?”

[GB: Abhi, you are correct in implying that zero degrees of freedom would be a violation of the Fourth Assumption of Science, inseparability (Just as there is no motion without matter, so there is no matter without motion). That never happens in the same way absolute zero (0oK) never can be achieved. Even outer space has a temperature of 2.7 oK. Temperature is a measure of the motion of matter.

The atoms in solids are in close juxtaposition. We think of them as being bound together. Regressives would say they are “attracted to each other.” Because of that, their degrees of freedom are restricted. Nevertheless, they continually vibrate because the revolutions of electrons around the nucleus are never perfect. Degrees of freedom never can be zero. Thus, metal contains atoms joined together in “almost” fixed positions. When heated, the vibrations within increase. This motion is transferred to your skin when you touch a hot frying pan.

As explained in more detail in PSI Blog 20190320, all things must be in motion to exist. And, as explained in PSI Blog 20190417, the centers of aetherial vortices such as the solar system and the Milky Way tend to become increasingly dense as they emit motion to their surroundings. The Sun is a nice example of fusion, in which two hydrogen atoms combine to form one helium atom. The resulting helium atom has less internal motion than the sum of the internal motion of the two hydrogen atoms considered separately. Per neomechanics, as described by the E=mc2 equation, this submicrocosmic motion is emitted across the microcosmic boundary, being transferred to supermicrocosms (extent aether particles) in the macrocosm.[1] This motion produces waves in the aether otherwise known as sunlight.

Continued fusion produces increasingly heavier combinations and still more light as seen for neutron stars, supernovas, and quasars. The nuclei of galaxies, otherwise known as “black holes,” have lost so much motion to their surroundings that they presumably emit very little light. That name has stuck although Hawking eventually admitted that they probably were “gray holes,” emitting at least some light.[2] These nuclei are highly dense and like the solids mentioned above, they must contain submicrocosms with few degrees of freedom.

But do they have zero degrees of freedom? That appears to be exactly what the younger Hawking believed when he was pushing the Black Hole idealism. That view was akin to the “perfectly solid matter” idealization I previously discussed as the opposite of the equally bogus “perfectly empty space” idealization.[3] It is nice to see the elder Hawking gave up that part of his otherwise magical thinking. Is the Black Hole the end state for matter?

The correct answer is no. Here are some theoretical and observational reasons for that answer:


Idealistic mathematicians might calculate that Black Holes are infinitely dense and that their contents therefore have zero degrees of freedom. Of course, that would violate the Tenth Assumption of Science, interconnection (All things are interconnected, that is, between any two objects exist other objects that transmit matter and motion). There is another assumption that may help us understand the eventual disposition of Black Holes. It is the Sixth Assumption of Science, complementarity (All things are subject to divergence and convergence from other things). In sum, that means every microcosm in the universe is the result of a coming together of other things, followed by a coming apart of those things.


In "Universal Cycle Theory" we emphasized the part played by rotation in the life of cosmological objects.[4] When microcosms rotate they tend to accrete matter and when their rotation slows they tend to excrete matter. For instance, planets that rotate rather fast tend to have satellites (moons); those that rotate slowly tend to have no satellites, excreting gases instead. The accreting Earth rotates once a day while the excreting Venus rotates once every four months. In other words, Earth is still subject to convergence (birth), while Venus is undergoing divergence (death).


Remember that my speculation about the formation of baryonic matter involved the convergence of high-speed aether particles of unequal size.[5] Juxtaposition of small particles around large particles resulted in a reduction of the types of aetherial impacts that normally would force them apart. And, as I illustrated with the “cattle roundup” example, fast longitudinal motion produces fast rotational motion that results in slow longitudinal motion. Individuals within the herd travel just as fast in a circle, but the herd as a whole becomes stationary. Planetary and galactic accretion is a similar process.

Now, galactic nuclei (Black Holes) tend to rotate rapidly, accreting the stars and other matter around them in huge quantities. According to Wikipedia: “One black hole, at the heart of galaxy NGC 1365 is turning at 84% the speed of light.” Looks like the excretion phase of that galactic nucleus will not occur soon. Steve and I calculated that our own Milky Way galaxy will take at least 37,000 trillion years to mature and for excretion to begin.[6] What will happen to the nucleus after the 400 billion stars in the galaxy are pushed into it and its rotation becomes imperceptible? If the universe really is infinite, I predict that it has numerous extremely dense, solitary, slowly rotating, mostly nonluminous “Black Holes” that are the remnants of former galaxies. Like the slowly rotating Venus, these cosmological microcosms would excrete matter to the macrocosm per the Second Law of Thermodynamics until they disappear altogether.

[1] Borchardt, Glenn, 2009, The physical meaning of E=mc2, Proceedings of the Natural Philosophy Alliance: Storrs, CN, v. 6, no. 1, p. 27-31 [10.13140/RG.2.1.2387.4643]. [Free download, which has been downloaded over 4,500 times according to ResearchGate.net.]
[2] Lewis, Geraint, 2014, Grey is the new black hole: is Stephen Hawking right?: The Conversation, APA citation:, Accessed 20171022 [http://go.glennborchardt.com/Lewis14BHaregrey].
[3] Borchardt, Glenn, 2017, Infinite Universe Theory: Berkeley, California, Progressive Science Institute, 349 p. [http://go.glennborchardt.com/IUTebook].
[4] Puetz, Stephen J., and Borchardt, Glenn, 2011, Universal cycle theory: Neomechanics of the hierarchically infinite universe: Denver, Outskirts Press, 626 p. [http://www.scientificphilosophy.com/].
[5] Borchardt, 2017, ibid. [Note that if analogous to the short-range velocity of nitrogen molecules in air, aether particles would have short-range velocity of 1.5c].
[6] Puetz and Borchardt, ibid, p. 172.

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